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Prescription medicines are not allowed to be sold on the internet in Ireland, only some medicines that do not need a prescription. Expand all Collapse all. The customer knows that the medicine should be used in accordance with the recommendations for use contained within the product packaging.

If you would like further information, contact us at internetsupply psi. Email: info psi. You are here: Home Internet Supply Overview. Internet Supply List: Overview Anyone who wishes to sell non-prescription medicines over the internet in Ireland must register with the PSI and have their name listed on the approved Internet Supply List.

No, you do not need to be registered with the PSI if non-prescription online pharmacy no prescription that are sold are collected from a pharmacy or a non-pharmacy retailer. You do however, need to register with online pharmacy no prescription PSI if you intend to sell and supply non-prescription at a distance over the internet.

Each pharmacy supplying non-prescription medicines online must be registered on the Internet Supply List. This is regardless if there is only one company website address. To use the word pharmacy, or to set up an online pharmacy, you must first be registered with the PSI as a Retail Pharmacy Business.

Internet Supply-Medicines-PSI

You can ppharmacy sell non-prescription medicines if you are registered on the PSI Internet Supply Listand you prescruption selling a medicinal product that is licensed in that EEA country you are supplying to. The sale of prescription only medicines online are strictly prohibited online pharmacy no prescription Ireland, from a website in Ireland to residents in another country, and to a resident in Ireland from another country.

In Ireland, only non-prescription medicines are allowed to be sold online. The Internet Supply List is divided into two parts based on the type of retailer: Part A of the list contains the registered pharmacies that sell medicines online. Pharmacies selling non-prescription medicines online are allowed to sell the following categories of medicines: Pharmacy only medicines: These are medicines that can only be sold from a pharmacy under nno supervision of a pharmacist, for example, ibuprofen.

Since this study represents a preliminary approach into this area of research, no standardized instruments could address all points of costs drug. As such, onlkne developed a descriptive tool centered on our representative drug, in which questions about dosage schedules, onllne events, etc, were specifically related to tramadol. While we developed this descriptive tool to meet the objectives of this pilot study, we hope that the results can provide a basis for a more standardized instrument that can be used to investigate the same objectives for any number of drugs purchased from NPOPs in future studies.

Other than demographics, the survey covered a broad variety of topics related specifically to tramadol, including the following: dosage schedule, intended use, comorbidity, legitimate and illegitimate drug use, and adverse events.

Participants who listed NPOPs as a source of tramadol were presented with a subset of questions to determine the underlying factors behind their use of online pharmacies. A total of tramadol users qualified for and completed this study.

Of these participants, indicated prsscription they received tramadol solely through a valid prescription from their local doctor and filled it at a local pharmacy. As shown in Table 1both traditional and nontraditional users were primarily white and phrmacy.

Traditional users were online pharmacy no prescription older than nontraditional users.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

The values given are the percent of respondents who endorsed a motivation listed or specified a motivation that was not listed in quotation marks. Table 2 shows that nontraditional users were more likely to take the higher dose mg traditional users. Nontraditional users were also considerably more likely to use tramadol more frequently 5 or more times per week.

All traditional users used tramadol for its indicated purpose ie, to treat painwith only 2. Nontraditional users experienced a much more severe adverse event profile than traditional users Figure 2.

Percent of traditional and nontraditional users who experienced each adverse event while taking tramadol. Both groups had high rates of suddenly stopping their use of tramadol, but nontraditional users were significantly more likely online pharmacy no prescription cease use abruptly traditional users: Upon cessation, nontraditional users experienced more severe withdrawal symptoms than traditional users see Figure 3.

Percent of traditional and nontraditional users who experienced each withdrawal symptom as a result of the abrupt cessation of tramadol. Our data indicate that those who eschew the typical doctor-patient relationship to obtain tramadol through NPOPs do so primarily for reasons related to cost and accessibility and, most importantly, expose themselves to great health risks.

We found that nontraditional users who used NPOPs had much higher rates of all recorded adverse events, particularly life-threatening seizures, than traditional users who obtained a prescription for tramadol from their physician. While the precise mechanisms are unknown, seizures are more prevalent in people who take high doses of pharmacy panacea [ 4252 ], have predisposing medical conditions eg, history of head injuries [ 53 ], or take contraindicated medications eg, tricyclic antidepressants [ 54 - online pharmacy no prescription ].

Physicians are trained to recognize such predisposing factors, but nontraditional users are likely to be unaware of these potential complications, leading to poor health outcomes. Moreover, we found that nontraditional users experienced much more intense opioid withdrawal symptoms when they stopped taking tramadol. The most logical explanation for these findings is that the lack of physician oversight in monitoring dosage schedules, contraindicated conditions, and concomitant medications was responsible for the increased intensity and frequency of adverse events in nontraditional users.

Nearly all nontraditional users in our study indicated that their tramadol use was motivated, at least in part, by a need to treat a health condition eg, pain that was not otherwise managed through legitimate health care channels.

It was this perception of their unmet medical need ie, inadequate pain management that drove them to use NPOPs. This finding raises an important question: Why were normal medical channels shunned in favor of an click at this page pharmacy?

There appear to be three distinct motivations for using online pharmacies: phamacy inability to pay the costs associated with obtaining a legitimate prescription; 2 limited access to a doctor who would prescribe tramadol or prescribe it at doses sufficient to fully relieve pain; and 3 unwillingness, not inability, to use legitimate medical channels. There are several possible interpretations of the latter motivation. Second, the physician denied the patient additional tramadol because the doctor incorrectly believed the pain was managed to the extent possible ie, inadequate pain management.

Third, the physician was reluctant to prescribe opioid analgesics, even a weak one such as tramadol, at sufficient levels to adequately relieve pain due to the inherent fear of iatrogenic dependence. At this time, it is unclear which of these was the strongest motivation to use NPOPs, but lack of access to appropriate medical treatment appears to be prescripyion major factor. This should not be online pharmacy no prescription given the well-documented regional, social, and economic differences in access to medical care in the United States [ 56 - 59 ].

It is also possible that some Peescription users, while initially using tramadol for therapeutic purposes, had predisposing factors that led to the development of tramadol misuse or abuse.

This euphorigenic use, a health outcome itself, would have led to higher dosages and increased frequency of use, playing a role in the higher rates of adverse events. In a physician-patient relationship, however, a doctor may have recognized predisposing factors for misuse and not prescribed an opioid analgesic or, if already prescribed, recognized the signs of abuse and misuse and switched from tramadol to a less addictive drug. Pharmacyy we used tramadol presctiption a prototype in these studies, there is no reason to believe that different results would be observed with dozens of equally accessible prescription drugs obtained through Peescription that are used without the oversight of a physician.

The dangers of overdose and other adverse events with these medications, especially when little to no information about contraindicated medications and medical conditions is included with purchase, have the potential to be more online pharmacy no prescription significant with other medications than those we observed with tramadol.

As such, the geometric growth in the use of online pharmacies around the world, both legitimate and illegitimate, should prompt intense medical and regulatory discussion about their role, if any, in the provision of medical care. Currently there are pgescription bills and regulations being discussed to control the use of online pharmacies, some of which ban the use of those located outside of the United States [ 2223 ], but the following two factors need to be considered.

First, the passage of online pharmacy regulations that promote verification programs [ 24 ], licensure and location disclosures [ online pharmacy no prescription ], standardized criteria for Internet-based prescriptions [ 60 - 61 ], and a more thorough analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of online health care services eg, the ability of online pharmacies to detect interactions between medications instantly [ 5 ] may help integrate online pharmacies into health care utilization models.

The reality, however, is that regulating these legitimate online pharmacies is likely to have no effect on those using NPOPs. These users have already turned their back on typical preecription channels and seem to be able to quickly adapt to any change in access to online pharmacies eg, shift of NPOPs to foreign countriesand no amount of regulatory oversight would likely change their drug-purchasing behaviors.

Second, so long online pharmacy no prescription a licensed doctor provides a prescription and the pharmacy verifies the legitimacy of the prescription, it would be inappropriate, perhaps unethical, to ban a patient from shopping around to prescriptkon the most economical and convenient means of filling their prescriptions.

Whether this doctor-patient relationship needs to be on a physical basis merits further discussion. Research has shown that email and virtual consultations are just as good, if not better, at phaemacy patient information necessary for health care decisions [ 2162 ]. Because prescri;tion aggressive marketing and pricing strategies, as well as the recent shift in patients becoming more involved in their own health care decisions, people using online pharmacies are in danger of unconsciously transforming from patients to consumers, and then back to patients again when they suffer from adverse effects from the use online pharmacy no prescription the drug [ 1363 - 64 ].

Patients should be aware of the real possibility that while offshore pharmacies may be cheaper and easier to use, the medications received may not be what was advertised. For this reason, recent US Food and Drug Administration Online pharmacy no prescription and WHO reports have advocated global click the following article safety, including international cooperation regarding the regulation of online pharmacies [ 1131 ].

Such an effort is badly needed because if one country attempts to ban online pharmacies, most users online pharmacy no prescription simply try a website from another country.

Clearly, in addition to regulatory activity, educational efforts are needed to ensure that patients and physicians understand the positive and negative aspects of online pharmacies. Perhaps most importantly, more research is needed to better understand the motivations of people who, despite the availability of legitimate online pharmacies, continue to seek medications using NPOPs.

Inherent in this study are all of the limitations typical of epidemiological and survey research, most notably generalizability and veracity of information gathered. With regard to the latter, most studies indicate that the results obtained from self-administered surveys are comparable to those elicited by trained interviewers.

No Prescription Needed?

In our study, there were no right or wrong answers. There was no incentive or need to lie about any information because respondents were paid for their participation regardless of their answers. In terms of a biased sample, it is true that our subjects might have greater economic status and certainly more computer literacy than the average person, but these users would most likely to be exposed to advertisements touting online pharmacies. Our data suggest that online pharmacies may have a role in supplying prescribed medications because they are convenient and may charge less than traditional brick-and-mortar pharmacies.

However, from a public health perspective, the online pharmacy no prescription benefits of online medical care need to be balanced against the use of unregulated pharmacies that could sell counterfeit or adulterated drugs and the dangers inherent in self-medication without any physician supervision. This study was financed with institutional funds and was approved by the Institutional Review Board at Washington University in St.

Conflicts of Interest: Conflicts of Interest: None declared. J Med Internet Res. Published online Dec 6. Louis, Campus BoxS. Euclid Ave. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Many prescription drugs are freely available for purchase on the Internet without a legitimate prescription from a physician. Objective This study focused on the motivations for using no-prescription online pharmacy no prescription pharmacies NPOPs to purchase prescription drugs rather than using the traditional doctor-patient-pharmacy model.

Methods We selected tramadol as a representative drug to address our objective because it canadian pharmacy online widely prescribed as an unscheduled opioid analgesic and can easily be purchased from NPOPs. Results Respondents in both groups were primarily white, female, and in their mid-forties nontraditional users to upper forties traditional users. Keywords: prescription drugs, health care quality, access, evaluation, health policy, substance-related disorders.

Methods Selection of Target Drug Since most online pharmacies offer dozens of drugs for purchase, we needed to narrow the focus to users of a single representative target drug. Recruitment It has been widely documented that recruiting and administering surveys over the Internet is an acceptable and beneficial research methodology [ 45 - 46 ].

Survey Instrument Since this study represents a preliminary approach into this area of research, no standardized instruments could address all points of inquiry.

Data Analysis A total of tramadol users qualified for and completed this study. Results Demographics As shown in Table 1both traditional and nontraditional users were primarily white and female. Table 1 Demographics and health information for traditional and nontraditional users.

Open in a separate window. Medicine shopping 1. Tramadol Use Table 2 shows that nontraditional users were more likely to take the higher dose mg traditional users.

To better understand these responses, reasons for low drug cost were sorted into three categories: 1 negative reasons that have the potential to cause harm to pharmacy customers, 2 neutral reasons, and 3 none of the above. The number of neutral reasons checked also had a significant relationship with pharmacy ratings but in the opposite direction. Next, as a proxy measure of critical judgment, a pharmacy evaluation index was calculated as a mean of five factor scores: 1 ability to recognize negative reasons for low costs of Beozine at Pharmacy B; 2 willingness to recommend Pharmacy A to friends and family; 3 willingness to recommend Pharmacy B to friends and family; 4 rating of Pharmacy A as a place to purchase Beozine; and 5 rating of Pharmacy B as a place to purchase Beozine.

Scaled 0 to 1 with a rating of one representing better judgment, factors 4 and 5 were prepared for inclusion in the pharmacy evaluation index.

Independent-samples t tests were conducted to evaluate if individuals who use Internet information for making health decisions demonstrate better critical judgment skills, as indicated by the pharmacy evaluation index. The results were counter to expectations. Predictors of the pharmacy evaluation index were examined using a hierarchical regression analysis. As can be seen in Table 6Model 1 took into account demographics, education, and self-reported health.

All of these variables, except self-reported health, were significantly and positively related to the pharmacy evaluation index. Gender was not a significant predictor of pharmacy judgment. Model 2 included the same predictors as Model 1 plus Internet-related beliefs and behaviors.

No Prescription Needed? | Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology | JAMA | JAMA Network

After controlling for Model 1 predictors, whether an individual used intern pharmacy from general Internet searches for health decision making for self or to help others was a significant negative online pharmacy no prescription, as well as a belief in the high quality of Internet health information. The practical significance of this finding is limited by a small effect size.

The findings of this study indicate that university students are onlind making pfescription judgments about health information that is provided on the Internet. The two Internet pharmacies used in this study had multiple untrustworthy features that were borrowed from five actual pharmacy websites that the authors considered to be potentially dangerous to consumers.

Yet, almost one-half of the study population rated the Pharmacy A site favorably, while over one-third rated Pharmacy B in a favorable manner. It is interesting to note that some of the participants who gave these rogue pharmacies positive evaluations would not recommend them to family and friends. Even so, about one quarter of respondents would recommend Pharmacy A to friends and family. When asked about why Beozine was cheaper at an Internet pharmacy versus the local pharmacy, the respondents checked online pharmacy no prescription explanations.

Perhaps these respondents noticed that Pharmacies A and B were located outside of the US and took this as an indicator, perhaps in conjunction with other untrustworthy features, that these pharmacies might not be compliant with the US pharmwcy.

An alternative explanation would be that the respondents did not believe that Internet pharmacies could be regulated as well as storefront pharmacies. Future research should continue to monitor the level of consumer awareness of pharmacy standards and accreditation. Do consumers know that all US Internet pharmacies must comply with the same regulations and face the same penalties for non-compliance as storefront pharmacies or clinics [ 10 ]?

In addition to these information requests, a large number of other features communicated potential preacription, such as misleading statements, suspicious disclaimers, unsupported claims, requests for personal information, typographical errors, and no way to contact a live person online pharmacy no prescription phone. But these plentiful signs of danger, absence of credibility markers, and very low drug prices did not arouse consumer suspicion in at least one-third of young people who participated in this study.

Individuals who linked low drug costs to signs of danger few regulations, low quality of drugs prscription selling customer information had more negative evaluations of the Internet pharmacies than those who cited neutral reasons. The actual rogue pharmacy websites we accessed offered their customers multiple neutral reasons, saying that their low prices were a result of high sales volumes, low operation costs, and consumer pressure due to onlihe shopping.

So-Called Canadian Internet Pharmacies Selling Not-So-Canadian Drugs. questionnaire, as well as those requiring no prescription at all. Rogue online pharmacies offer potentially dangerous prescription drugs to U.S. offering prescription drugs without a prescription;.

As warned by Palumbo [ 13 ], increased sales volumes may not result in lowered drug costs but may result in more counterfeit drugs in the future. We also examined if those who used Internet information to make health decisions had better judgment skills. It was not the case. In fact, individuals who used general search engines had worse evaluation skills than students who reported more traditional methods for making onlins decisions.

Additionally, it was found that those helping others make informed health decisions using the Prescriptikn information had worse judgment than those who did not. In other words, people with worse judgment controlling for online pharmacy no prescription other knline are the ones most likely to use information to help others. Perhaps these individuals are more eager to use any information versus quality information.

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Not very skilled in evaluating the Internet pharmacies, these individuals may then recommend buying drugs to others. This was an interesting finding that was not hypothesized a priori and had a small effect size. Therefore, it would be expected that older individuals with more college education should be able to make better judgments about the health information provided online.

As compared with younger people, older consumers of information would have had more experience with a wide variety of media—interpersonal communication, TV, radio, print, etc—and might have learned to be cautious. Their folk wisdom that people should phqrmacy believe everything they see, hear, or read may online pharmacy no prescription from pharmayc media to phqrmacy media, even for those with limited Internet experience. It is online pharmacy no prescription likely that any higher education, and especially education in health sciences, serves to improve electronic health literacy skills, such as the skills involved in determining the credibility of health websites.

On the other hand, individuals with low literacy and those with less formal education are expected to be susceptible to making a purchase from a rogue Internet pharmacy. Motivated by high profits from illegal drug sales, creators of rogue Internet pharmacies are likely to employ new, sophisticated ways to lure consumers to their olnine.

For example, when the lnline press was covering the price advantage of Canadian pharmacies, a large number of Internet pharmacies, including those not based in Canada, exploited the opportunity to gain consumer trust by presenting themselves as Canadian pharmacies [ 32 ].

From this study, it can be determined that many college-educated young people cannot see the signs of danger displayed by rogue Internet pharmacies, and those that have skills pahrmacy competencies may not use them when viewing Internet pharmacy information.

An even greater number onnline individuals are likely to be misled by seller websites that show fewer signs of untrustworthiness and greater surface credibility—marked by professional Web pharacy, a polished appearance, or attractive graphics—than the websites used in this study.

Suggestions for future study include designing research that can directly test the relationships noted here to find out if online pharmacy no prescription results can be replicated in other settings and populations.

Since these findings were not predicted or hypothesized, but found in post-hoc analyses, additional research is warranted to purposefully test these relationships. The RRSA had only a few pharmacy questions that explored a limited number of issues in the population of college students. A more sophisticated design could help to explain some of the presented findings. Using this as a preliminary study, knline can be stated that better educated consumers have higher electronic information literacy and better health-related decision making.

Another interesting direction for future study is to examine obline relationship between consumer attitudes about the enforcement of intellectual property laws and their willingness to buy from rogue Internet pharmacies. How many consumers see small online sellers as a viable alternative to traditional drug distribution channels? Do online shoppers believe that traditional drug distribution channels are tightly controlled by large drug companies that preecription their patented drugs?

It is suggested that a two-tiered approach be medication without an rx buy for consumers that would include both educational programs and regulatory efforts. Health care professionals, including health educators, need to develop consumer education programs and communication campaigns that pnline the variable quality of Web-based health information and that build information evaluation skills and otherwise promote digital media literacy.

This study highlighted the importance of making consumers aware of the concerns with medications purchased online and with Internet pharmacies and the importance of explaining to consumers the reasons for very low drug costs and the dangers of self-diagnosis.

Further, consumer education is needed about the medications themselves, as Internet pharmacies are often online pharmacy no prescription providing adequate information or education [ 12 ]. Because health educators and consumer educators have relatively easy access to young Internet users, these users onlnie be included in pilot tests of new programs developed to educate these individuals about illegitimate pharmacies and to build their health information literacy skills.

From a governmental perspective, the federal system cannot lose sight of the dangers of Internet pharmacies. Although much progress has been made in regard to regulating US Onlibe pharmacies, there is still much work to be done in regulating foreign pharmacies and curbing the danger they pose to prescrition. With improved regulation, international collaboration, and consumer education, there will be an increased assurance of safety for those wishing to utilize Internet pharmacies.

In sum, our findings suggest that at least a quarter of consumers would consider using rogue sellers of medications similar to the ones we used in this study.

Many more consumers are likely to be misled by rogue Internet pharmacies that 1 use website designs that appear more professional, 2 better veil their untrustworthy features, and 3 mimic reputable websites to a greater extent than the Internet pharmacies used in this study.

We would like to thank Wesley Leonard for providing programming support for his project and Daniel Bracken for assistance with video files. Video different formats that demonstrates interactive web-based questions about Pharmacies A onoine B and navigation of their websites.

Edited by G Eysenbach; submitted Skip to Main Content Skip to Footer. Article Authors Cited by phrmacy Tweetations 1 Metrics. Original Paper. Table 1. Our staff can prescribe medications based on a detailed questionnaire. We would review the information you submit and respond within one hour! Order prescription medications without leaving home! Low low prices!!!! Next-day delivery. World-wide delivery.

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No prescription is required. Submit a valid prescription by FAX or email with a scanned prescription attached or request an updated prescription. Information requested from customers Online pharmacy no prescription, date of birth, pharmaxy address, mailing address, detailed insurance information, specific medical problems, all past surgeries, phar,acy treated with each surgery, all medications they plan to take, and all current medical conditions. All over-the-counter and prescription medications they are currently taking, the length of time for each, and medications they plan to take in the ;rescription future.

The statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. No advice or product listed here precription intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

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This study focused on the motivations for using no-prescription online pharmacies (NPOPs) to purchase prescription drugs rather than using the traditional. Always get your medicine from a pharmacy or a reputable outlet. It's never a good idea to take a prescription medicine without a valid prescription. The.

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